Global journal of Business and Integral Security <p><img src="" alt="" width="200" height="283" /></p> <h2>About the Journal</h2> <p>Global Journal of Business and Integral Security - GBIS (ISSN 2673-9682 Print, ISSN 2673-9690 Online) is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal published by the Swiss School of Business and Management (SSBM Geneva).</p> <p>GBIS aims to provide a valuable outlet for research and scholarship on management-orientated themes and topics. It publishes articles of of multi-disciplinary and interdisciplinary nature as well as empirical research from traditional and managerial functions. With contributions from around the globe, the journal includes articles across the full range of business, management and integral security disciplines.</p> <p>The journal covers topics in the areas of business, management, finance, corporate governance, corporate security, health security, environmental safety, human resource management, marketing, organizational behavior, organization theory, strategy, technology management, and related areas. </p> <p><strong>Aims</strong></p> <p>The aim of GBIS is to provide a platform where academics and practitioners can present their research in the fields of business, management and integral security. The journal will provide new methods and methodologies for analysis, integration and implementation of business, management and integral security.</p> <h4>Focus and Scope</h4> <p>The journal aims to provide an outlet for research and scholarship on management-related themes and topics. With contributions from around the globe, the journal includes empirical, conceptual and methodological articles across the full range of business and management disciplines, including:</p> <ul> <li>Accounting and Finance</li> <li>Business Economics</li> <li>Business Ethics</li> <li>Corporate Governance</li> <li>Environmental Health and Safety</li> <li>Entrepreneurship &amp; SME managemen</li> <li>General Management</li> <li>Human Resource Management</li> <li>Integral and corporate security </li> <li>Knowledge Management</li> <li>Management Development</li> <li>Marketing</li> <li>Operations Management</li> <li>Organization Theory</li> <li>Organizational Behaviour</li> <li>Public Sector Management</li> <li>R&amp;D Management</li> <li>Research Methods</li> <li>Strategic Management</li> <li>Technology Management</li> </ul> <p>Other themes associated to the above or emerging topics will also be considered. </p> <p>All papers submitted to GBIS are submitted to double-blind peer review. </p> <p><strong>Indexed and Abstracted Information</strong></p> <ul> <li>Academic Journals Database</li> <li>COPAC</li> <li>Electronic Journals Library</li> <li>Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek (EZB)</li> <li>Google Scholar</li> <li>JournalTOCs</li> <li>Ulrich's</li> <li>Universe Digital Library</li> <li>WorldCat</li> <li>ZBW-German National Library of Economics</li> </ul> en-US (GBIS Journal) (GBIS Technical Support) Mon, 27 Dec 2021 07:14:23 -0800 OJS 60 Reducing cybersecurity risks and insider computer abuse by better securing the human factor: Improving organizational it security compliance <p><em>One of the greatest heists in the cybersecurity context resulted in $1 bln loss for financial institutions </em><em>(<a href="#_ENREF_25">Kaspersky, 2015</a>)</em><em> and was result of an email-spoofing attack in which employees clicked on a link that installed malicious software affecting employees machines. This simple mechanic reveals how a simple phishing email can have disastrous consequences on organizational information systems (IS). </em></p> <p><em>Ensuring compliant security behaviors from employees is a “holy grail” for all companies looking to protect organizational assets. Insider computer abuse, the volitional and non-volitional security violation, is identified as one of the greatest concerns for companies. Despite numerous initiatives to encourage organizational IT security compliance, serious security incidents have increased, often stemming from employees’ noncompliant and careless actions (e.g., falling for phishing). Despite the increasing relevance of the employee IS security policy compliance phenomenon, and in light of the digitization of the workplace (e.g. bring your own device, social media use, etc.), important research gaps remain in our understanding of how to effectively reduce employee non-compliant behavior. </em></p> <p><em>While information security research has examined several different theories, methods and techniques for persuading employees to behave securely in organizations, employees still continue to violate IS security policies. In this research paper we set out the research gaps that remain in our understanding of the insider computer abuse and identified the contextual events that precede the IT security policy violation and lead to the employee non-compliant behavior. </em></p> <p><em>Finally, we wish to advance our understanding of this phenomenon through the systematic theory development that can be published in high-ranking international journals by developing new theoretical insights about 1) how to influence employee’s motivation to behave more securely and more in compliance with organizational IT security policies and 2) identify contextual factors (e.g., culture, color, warnings, etc.) that would empower employees to take more informed and better security decisions.</em></p> <p><em>We believe that our findings can help <strong>recast extant research and practices</strong> that should lead to potentially more effective approach to encouraging employees’ security compliance. </em></p> <p><em>With this theoretical and empirical work, we show how our proposal can make multiple contributions to theory, and how important implications for practitioners can be derived.</em></p> Mario Silic, Ivana Silic, Dario Silic Copyright (c) 2022 Tue, 09 Feb 2021 00:00:00 -0800 A STUDY ON THE BOP BUSINESS FOR POVERTY REDUCTION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES <p>Alleviating poverty has long been discussed as one of the most significant social issues,<br>especially in the developing world. One major problem in addressing the poverty issue is<br>directly linked not merely to fewer job opportunities and an unstable income, but also to<br>poor health, lack of education, inadequate living standards, lack of income,<br>disempowerment, poor, quality of work, and threat of violence. The Base of Pyramid<br>(BOP) business is referred to as a behavior-oriented model or an approach that helps<br>business organizations sufficiently promote their activities in undeveloped and unserved<br>markets. Promoting the BOP business has, therefore, become one of the most innovative<br>ways to mitigate the poverty, primarily by private sectors. However, little previous<br>research has been conducted on the influence of the BOP business opportunities on the<br>poverty reduction and on the BOP business development strategy in connection with the barrier issue of lacking the appropriate economic development conditions. Tran’s<br>economic development stage model and Vernon’s BOP business development model<br>were applied to examine the predictive relationships between poverty reduction and the<br>BOP business maturity. Using secondary data compiled between 2000 and 2020<br>primarily from the World Development Indicators, the World Governance Indicator, the<br>Human Development Index, and multiple linear regression modeling, the strength of the<br>BOP business cases predicting the percentage change in R<br>2<br>variance in the poverty<br>headcount ratio was evaluated in the randomly selected 61 economies. Using natural data,<br>the BOP business was found to be a significant predictor (F [1, 1268] = 12.822, p = .000)<br>for poverty headcount ratio, and is thus a major factor in alleviating poverty. Also,<br>employing the grounded theory, through the open, axial, and selective-coding process,<br>developed a conceptual framework of the BOP business development strategy for poverty<br>reduction that combines the economic development conditions per income stage with the<br>BOP business development. Positive social change emanates through continued policy<br>support of the BOP business as a means to mitigate poverty by formulating the<br>framework and its strategy.</p> HARA MASATOSHI Copyright (c) 2022 Tue, 30 Nov 2021 00:00:00 -0800 APPLICABILITY OF M&A VALUATION MODELS IN THE PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY <p>The purpose of this research was to evaluate the applicability of M&amp;A valuation<br>models in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry. A quantitative study with secondary data, using two modelling approaches, DCF and relative valuation, was conducted.<br>The choice of the two modelling approaches was a result of an extensive literature study<br>of different approaches to valuation. The two modelling approaches were applied to six<br>target companies, involved in M&amp;A deals in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry during the last decade, which are widely known to not have been as successful as anticipated with respect to sales growth, market capitalization, profitability as well as other important metrics. These target companies were Monsanto, Actelion, Kite Pharma, Bioverativ, Cubist and Questcor Pharmaceuticals, which were acquired by Bayer, Johnson &amp; Johnson, Gilead Sciences, Sanofi, Merck and Mallinckrodt respectively.<br>Three research questions, related to differences between the models, sensitivity of<br>assumptions and if the models contributed to reduction of important financial metrics such<br>as sales growth as well as market capitalization, were answered in the thesis. Based on<br>carefully chosen assumptions, the relative valuation generated more accurate and closer results to the realized enterprise values as well as share prices than the DCF approach.<br>Within the relative valuation, the EV/Sales multiple was more accurate than the other studied multiples: EV/EBITDA and P/E. When adjusting various assumptions in the DCF<br>model, some of the targets generated almost identical results as the realized values.<br>Although being highly dependent on assumptions, both models tend to generate<br>more undervalued results than overvalued ones, which may indicate that the valuation itself<br>was not the major contributor to reduction of important financial metrics after realization<br>of the M&amp;A deals. Even though this study was unique that it combined the DCF and relative valuation modelling approaches and applied them to several companies at the same<br>time, further research is needed to fully understand the applicability of M&amp;A valuation in<br>the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry. A suggestion is to apply more targets to a<br>similar study and perhaps also extend with other models.</p> Gustav Lindéus Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Jul 2021 00:00:00 -0700 ASSESSING CREDIT RISK MANAGEMENT PRACTICE IN PRIVATE BANKING IN IRAQ (AN EMPRICAL STUDY IN PRIVATE BANKING IN IRAQ) <p>The study examines the practice of credit risk management in private banks in Iraq. The<br>study compares the practice of credit risk management with the principles of credit risk<br>management issued by Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (2000) and examines how these<br>principles are effectively practiced and implemented. The author collected data by distributing 260<br>questionnaires to high level bank employees involved in credit risk management. The target<br>population consists of credit staff, credit risk managers, CEO and board members. The study uses<br>Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SSPS) software program version 26 to analyse the data<br>collected. The results of the data examined are descriptive statistics which include percentages,<br>frequencies such as mean, standard deviation and variance. The study examines regression<br>analysis, ANOVA analysis and Pearson correlation between variables.<br>The study finds the answers to the research questions and test hypotheses and concludes with the<br>description of its findings. Private banks in Iraq can benefit from the findings and suggestions to<br>improve their credit risk management. The author provides recommendations for further studies<br>and identifies some limitations of the study.</p> GHAZI H. M. S. MAMANDI Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 30 Jun 2021 00:00:00 -0700 AUGMENTED RESEARCH ON DAILY-BASIS IMPROVEMENTS OF WELDING AND NDT ECONOMY IN SHIPYARDS <p>The welding process is expensive and represents a considerable part of the overall process<br>of any shipyard. The shipbuilding welding target is to manufacture a sound hull with no welding<br>defect and as stated by the rules, regulations, and international standards.<br>The up-to-date information in the shipbuilding and from shipyards have shown the<br>requirement for continuous research in the relevant welding sectors, nondestructive tests, and<br>quality control and assurance during the shipbuilding phase.<br>Adding new value based on hands-on experience gained in shipyards worldwide and<br>problem areas that occur globally on a day-to-day basis and their smart measures has been<br>considered thoroughly in this dissertation.<br>Research has demonstrated the definite requirement in considering boosting the<br>proficiency of production in shipyards and the cost-effectiveness. The fusing superiority and<br>nondestructive tests are major factors.<br>The optimum mutual joining procedures, most common materials and those most<br>commonly applied in shipyards and shipbuilding, and quality control will be summarized—adding hands-on practical experience gathered in major shipyards—and this will lead<br>to recommendations on how major factors could be better managed on how they could improve<br>the quality, welding, and nondestructive tests economy alike, forming state-of-the-art research.</p> HUSSAM EL SEIDI Copyright (c) 2021 HUSSAM EL SEIDI Tue, 04 Jan 2022 00:00:00 -0800 JOB SATISFACTION: THE APPLICATION OF THE LEADERSHIP MINDSET FOR SMALL BUSINESSES PERFORMANCE <p>Critical decision-making is a backbone for the success of many businesses. Small<br>business leaders continually make such decisions with the inadequacy of resources<br>to ensure the company's floating against large corporations. Kovacs et al. (2017)<br>indicated that most small businesses lack strategies to maintain professional<br>communication and plan to increase job satisfaction between leaders and employees.<br>This study explores the leadership mindset and strategies to help develop small<br>businesses and bring job satisfaction for both the employer and the employee.</p> <p>The study used a qualitative case method to provide insights into a problem and help<br>develop hypotheses for the study. The target population was twenty-five small<br>business leaders in Astana, Kazakhstan, with sprawling companies in Kazakhstan's<br>capital city. Purposive sampling was applied using semi-structured in-depth interviews<br>to advance job satisfaction strategies</p> <p>Data were analyzed using inductive coding of phrases and word frequency searches<br>to create a thematic analysis. The triangulation approach was used to cross-validate<br>and strengthened the study's reliability.</p> <p>The study's findings could be valuable to micro and small businesses as they might fill<br>the gap in understanding strategies to increase job satisfaction.</p> DAVID ANNAN Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 31 Mar 2021 00:00:00 -0700 THE ADVERSE EFFECTS OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCES AND LEADERSHIP OF CULTURALLY DIVERSE WORK TEAMS DEVELOPMENT OF INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE IN MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES IN THE NETHERLANDS <p>I thank God for giving me life, strength, knowledge and wisdom to finish this research<br>successfully despite the severe health challenges I encountered during the study. My heartfelt<br>gratitude also goes to Dr Mario Silic, my supervisor at the Swiss School of Business and<br>Management, Switzerland, for guiding and providing me with valuable comments to<br>complete this research successfully. Your dedication, professional experience, excellent<br>communication skills and your passion have contributed to this study tremendously, and I<br>will forever remain grateful to you. Furthermore, my appreciation goes to all other<br>supervisors who contributed initially to this research.<br>This research has also become successful due to the kind support and the beautiful<br>encouragements of Eugenia Tetteh, Ephraimina Tetteh and Daniel Alexander Asampong.<br>Anytime I became tired and weary, you gave me the hope to keep moving on, and I will<br>remain grateful to you. My special gratitude also goes to Dr M.S. van Sandwijk, an Internist<br>at the UMC, Amsterdam and Dr H. Westerborg, my General Practitioner in Amsterdam for<br>their high level of professionalism and great medical care in the course of my studies. My<br>special appreciation goes to Marlies Schuman, one of the directors at the Institute of<br>International Business School of Utrecht University of Applied Sciences, the Netherlands, for<br>your thoughtful support and encouragement. I will also remain grateful to all the colleagues<br>at the Institute of International Business Studies Utrecht, the Netherlands, for your moral<br>support. Finally, I thank all team leaders and members in multinational companies in the<br>Netherlands who participated with their rich knowledge and experience for this research and<br>also not forgetting friends who in various ways, assisted me.</p> Alex Ekow Asampong Copyright (c) 2022 Sun, 31 Oct 2021 00:00:00 -0700 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURAL EVALUATION: A CASE STUDY OF AN ACQUIRED COMPANY IN HONG KONG UNDER MERGER AND ACQUISITION ENVIRONMENT <p>This study presents some findings that may contribute to the academic and practical fields on a topic of organizational culture evaluation under a merger and acquisition (M&amp;A) environment in Asian context. Zueva-Owens, Fotaki &amp; Ghauri’s (2012) work is the inspiration and theoretical foundation of this study, and the research is based on a real acquisition case in Hong Kong. In order to gain an in-depth understanding and insight of the underlying reasons and discussions for an interest study topic, a qualitative research method with individual interviews and questionnaires involving the acquired company’s members is adopted in this study. The contribution of the study is not aimed to come up with a new theory, but to further explore and support the findings of Zueva-Owens et al., (2012), and extend their studies by empirically demonstrating that the same cultural evaluation process can be found in the context of Asian companies. Thus, the acquired company’s members do change their evaluation on the acquirer’s norms and values across different postacquisition integration stages. Furthermore, the study also contributes on organizational culture aspects by showing some interesting findings that the acquired company’s members choose to “refuse” the norms and values of the acquirer under different context of economic environment, company financial status and corporate cultures. The findings of the study have important implications for managers wishing to guide post-acquisition integration for the merging companies with Asian context. The<br>results, discussions and recommendations may be used as a reference for those corporations which are actively looking for M&amp;A’s opportunities in Hong Kong. Besides, for those newly acquired and acquiring companies, their executives may also make use of the findings for refining the integration process particularly on the aspects of human capital and cultural alignment among themselves</p> RONNY SHU CHUNG LO Copyright (c) 2022 Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 -0700 THE THE IMPACT OF FINANCIAL INCLUSION ON AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN NGOKETUNJIA DIVISION, NORTH WEST CAMEROON <p>Agriculture remains the backbone of many developing countries, with an increasing contribution<br>to the gross domestic product. In Cameroon, more than 80% of the population is involved in<br>agriculture, yet the sector is plagued by mounting challenges. With large expanses of very<br>fertile land, Ngoketunjia Division would theoretically boast of food self-sufficiency and feed<br>the rising population. On the contrary, these fertile lands co-exist with low agricultural<br>productivity and yield. Therefore, this study investigates this dilemma and questions the role<br>of financial inclusion in the productivity of agriculture in the Ngoketunjia Division. The main<br>objective of this study, therefore, is to investigate the contribution of financial inclusion<br>on the productivity of agriculture in Ngoketunjia Division, North West region of Cameroon.<br>In other to attain this objective, data was collected from 285 farmers in Ngoketunijia using<br>a structured questionnaire from a cross-section of the farming population. The data were treated<br>and analyzed using structural equation modeling technique, and particularly the Partial Least<br>Square Approach. Pre-tests conducted such as the convergent validity, average variance<br>extracted (AVE), Cronbach's alpha, and convergent validity all indicated that the instrument<br>was valid and reliable. The data set was further analyzed using the SmartPLS3.0 version. In this<br>process, we have demonstrated that there is the absence of financial inclusion in the region as<br>mainstream financial institutions are largely absent, hence limiting access to resources. This<br>makes the contribution of financial inclusion to agricultural productivity in the region below<br>par. The main hypothesis that financial inclusion has a statistically significant effect on<br>agricultural productivity was as a consequence rejected which further justifies the fact that<br>farmers are largely excluded from financial services in the region. We furthermore proved<br>that education and training play a positive and significant role in the productivity of farmers<br>in Ngoketunijia, irrespective of the variability of the weather condition. Post-tests conducted<br>such as the Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) indicate no issue of multicollinearity and hence<br>result validated with 99% confidence based on a probability value of 0.00, which implies that<br>the overall conclusion is significant. It is recommended that measures should be put in place<br>to ensure pragmatic education for farmers as well as ensure financial sector development for<br>it to benefit the farming population. More youths should be encouraged and supported to<br>adopt agriculture as a business, in line with the head of state’s vision on second-generation<br>agriculture. It is concluded that agriculture remains the backbone of the economy and efforts<br>to upgrade the performance of the sector should be intensified.</p> Ibrahim Menkeh Muafueshiangha Copyright (c) 2021 Ibrahim Menkeh Muafueshiangha Mon, 27 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0800 THE TELCO’S DIGITAL PAYMENT SYSTEMS: PERCEPTIONS AND CONCERNS AMONGST HOUSEHOLDS IN ACCRA, GHANA <p>E-Commerce is one sector that has benefited from the technological transformation of the 3rd and 4th <br>Industrial Revolution, with the introduction of financial technology. Mobile Money, which is powered by <br>telecommunications companies, is one of the most popular financial technology platforms. It has become <br>ubiquitous and is one of the leading payments platforms in many nations, especially in developing countries. <br>This study, therefore, sought to investigate the perceptions and concerns of users of the Mobile Money <br>platforms in Ghana. The study assessed and analyzed the views of 50 households, based in the Madina <br>Municipality in the Greater Accra Region, using questionnaires and interviews in a qualitative approach. <br>As expected, the study found all the participants knew the Mobile Money platform, with a majority of them <br>indicating they use it daily for financial transactions. Again, it was found that participants preferred using <br>the Mobile Money platform for payments, hence hardly used cash. Participants cited reasons such as <br>convenience and accessibility for the use of the financial technology platform. However, participants <br>expressed concerns about the security of the platforms, with the fears buttressed by rising cases of <br>cybercrime. This meant participants had trust concerns, with regards to how secure their money is on the <br>platform. The poor network was also seen as another issue faced by participants using the mobile money <br>platforms. On this basis, this study suggests that telecommunications companies should work to improve <br>the security of their corresponding platforms to win the trust of existing and future consumers and protect <br>them from cyber fraudsters or other similar risks</p> Ibrahim Menkeh Muafueshiangha, Dario Silic, Mario Silic Copyright (c) 2021 Ibrahim Menkeh Muafueshiangha, Dario Silic, Mario Silic Mon, 27 Dec 2021 00:00:00 -0800