Global journal of Business and Integral Security <p><img src="" alt="" width="200" height="283" /></p> <h2>About the Journal</h2> <p>Global Journal of Business and Integral Security - GBIS (ISSN 2673-9690 Online) is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal published by the Swiss School of Business and Management (SSBM Geneva) and the University of Applied Sciences in Security and Safety.</p> <p>GBIS aims to provide a valuable outlet for research and scholarship on management-orientated themes and topics. It publishes articles of of multi-disciplinary and interdisciplinary nature as well as empirical research from traditional and managerial functions. With contributions from around the globe, the journal includes articles across the full range of business, management and integral security disciplines.</p> <p>The journal covers topics in the areas of business, management, finance, corporate governance, corporate security, health security, environmental safety, human resource management, marketing, organizational behavior, organization theory, strategy, technology management, and related areas. </p> <p><strong>Aims</strong></p> <p>The aim of GBIS is to provide a platform where academics and practitioners can present their research in the fields of business, management and integral security. The journal will provide new methods and methodologies for analysis, integration and implementation of business, management and integral security.</p> <h4>Focus and Scope</h4> <p>The journal aims to provide an outlet for research and scholarship on management-related themes and topics. With contributions from around the globe, the journal includes empirical, conceptual and methodological articles across the full range of business and management disciplines, including:</p> <ul> <li>Accounting and Finance</li> <li>Business Economics</li> <li>Business Ethics</li> <li>Corporate Governance</li> <li>Environmental Health and Safety</li> <li>Entrepreneurship &amp; SME managemen</li> <li>General Management</li> <li>Human Resource Management</li> <li>Integral and corporate security </li> <li>Knowledge Management</li> <li>Management Development</li> <li>Marketing</li> <li>Operations Management</li> <li>Organization Theory</li> <li>Organizational Behaviour</li> <li>Public Sector Management</li> <li>R&amp;D Management</li> <li>Research Methods</li> <li>Strategic Management</li> <li>Technology Management</li> </ul> <p>Other themes associated to the above or emerging topics will also be considered. </p> <p>All papers submitted to GBIS are submitted to double-blind peer review. </p> <p><strong>Indexed and Abstracted Information</strong></p> <ul> <li>Academic Journals Database</li> <li>COPAC</li> <li>Electronic Journals Library</li> <li>Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek (EZB)</li> <li>Google Scholar</li> <li>JournalTOCs</li> <li>Ulrich's</li> <li>Universe Digital Library</li> <li>WorldCat</li> <li>ZBW-German National Library of Economics</li> </ul> en-US (GBIS Journal) (GBIS Technical Support) Thu, 26 Jan 2023 07:04:16 -0800 OJS 60 THE RISING POPULARITY OF SPECIAL PURPOSE ACQUISITION COMPANIES: HIDDEN DANGERS, REGULATORY CHANGES, AND A LOOMING BUBBLE <p>Special-purpose acquisition companies, or SPACs, have existed in various<br>structures for decades. SPACs, often referred to as blank-check companies, are an<br>unconventional investment to make a company public. Instead of the traditional IPO<br>route, the SPAC is a shell structure that raises capital by buying or merging with an<br>existing company in under two years. SPAC investments soared to new records during<br>the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 and 2021. This research analyzes the hidden dangers<br>specific to retail investors and the actions regulators may take to protect the retail<br>investor given that SPACs are likely the next bubble to burst. The research uses<br>quantitative SPAC data on post-merger returns, SPAC index, deal size, and bookrunner<br>count. The research also consults two openly available surveys examining retail investor<br>knowledge of SPACs.<br>This research suggests that regulators and SPAC sponsors endorse more stringent<br>disclosure and reporting requirements around costs, fees, and sponsor incentives. This<br>research concludes by suggesting that if SPAC transactions come to a pause or return to<br>normal levels, there could be retail investors holding losses and, like all bubbles, the<br>SPAC bubble could burst.</p> Patrick J. Saul Copyright (c) 2022 Patrick J. Saul Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0800 SMART SERVANT LEADERSHIP IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT <p>In the modern era and competitive marketing world, Project Management and Leadership<br>play a vital role in the organization's development of quality processes, products, and<br>services. Leadership in project management is a key role in project success. So much<br>literature is available on different leadership styles at different management levels. Project<br>management is middle-level management in an organization and servant leadership is more<br>suitable for project management. But no sufficient literature review is available on the<br>combination of Project Management and Servant Leadership. This research paper aims to<br>describe new leadership skills with Smartness for further extension of servant leadership in<br>project managers adopting more quality skills such as SMART – Strategic, Mentor,<br>Appreciative, Risk-control, and Teamwork. This research paper explores the concept of<br>SMART servant leadership in project management. How is this leadership style unique and<br>works for personnel, operational and organizational growth? And why SMART Servant<br>leadership is more suited to project management.<br><br></p> Aaron Nyanama Copyright (c) 2022 Aaron Nyanama Wed, 21 Dec 2022 00:00:00 -0800 AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF REMOTE OFFSHORE EMPLOYEE’S ENGAGEMENT: A STUDY ON NORTH SEA OFFSHORE REMOTE WORKFORCE <p>Popularly known as Oil capital of Europe, the Oil and Gas industry in the UK North Sea is an integral part of UK’s economic system contributing 49% of total offshore employment. Oil and Gas UK (OGUK) reports that economic downturn in the recent years and pandemic impacted the industry contributing to low employee – employer relationship, low engagement, and high turnover rate. Given the difficulties experienced within offshore industry, the research aims to explore the management and experience of employee engagement amongst offshore remote workforce in the North Sea offshore Oil and Gas industry.<br>This is an exploratory study and to accomplish the research aim and objectives, both qualitative and quantitative approaches using interviews and questionnaire survey are used. Due to the diverse nature behind employee engagement, this research adopted a sequential mixed methods to examine employee engagement. The interview findings are used along with literature evidence to develop quantitative research. 7 interview participants and 70 questionnaire participants comprising<br>Page 3 of 342<br>offshore remote workforce of different level positions from various Oil and Gas companies in the Northeast of Scotland have participated in the research study. Additionally, 3 interviews with senior leaders were also conducted. The questionnaire and interview participants were accessed via social media.<br>The collected qualitative data were summarized to key points and key themes and patterns were explored. The interview data were analyzed using Braun and Clarke’s thematic analysis. The quantitative data were gathered through the questionnaire analysis.<br>This research produced a number of key findings: (a) internal and external factors including organizational factors affect engagement drivers (b) the alignment between an employee’s values, their organization’s values and culture plays an important role in employee engagement (c) communication and keeping the employees informed of any organizational change plays a vital role in keeping employees engaged (d) to reduce attrition rates and retain passionate employees, effective management strategies should be executed into organizations.<br>The main conclusion drawn from this research was that the current approaches used to drive employee engagement in the Oil and Gas industry should be revised. Greater efforts must be made to foster a trusting and quality relationship between employees and the organization.<br>Key findings and recommendations from the research will contribute to the enhancement of employee engagement among offshore remote workforce.</p> Manjusree Beena Copyright (c) 2022 Manjusree Beena Wed, 30 Nov 2022 00:00:00 -0800 MODEL OF TRANSFORMATION TO GREEN HYDROGEN ECONOMY IN EMERGING COUNTRIES <p>1.1 Introduction<br>Green hydrogen holds significant promise in meeting our planet’s energy demands. This research paper searches for avenues and will offer a model of making the green –hydrogen transformation in the emerging countries of Asia, Europe and Africa, economically viable, less costly, environment friendly and lead to a contributor to a more sustainable economy.<br>1.2 Objective<br>1.2.1 This research paper will offer a model of making the green –hydrogen transformation in the emerging countries of Asia, Europe and Africa, less costly and environment friendly.<br>1.2.2 This research paper will also explore and suggest necessary steps to be taken so that green hydrogen contributes to 25% of the total world economy by 2035.<br>1.3 Methodology<br>1.3.1 Critical analysis of the literature review papers on the subject was undertaken, to draw conclusions on what more needs to be done to achieve a Green Hydrogen Economy of about 25% of the world economy by 2035, in the emerging countries.<br>1.3.2 Based on the feedback on the questionnaire, a statistical model has been projected to suggest the requirements based on the following five parameters: Cost of production, Expenditure / Investments, Innovation on tech expansion, Time and Stakeholders (private, public) participation<br>viii<br>1.4 Conclusions and Results<br>1.4.1 The responses from 75 persons on the questionnaire, supports our findings from our research model and our conviction that a “Green Hydrogen Economy is possible by 2035” is confirmed. The cost reduction to about USD 2 per Kg by 2035, predicted by our model is also supported by the survey.<br>1.4.2 For emerging nations of Asia, Africa &amp; Europe to have a 25% contribution from green hydrogen of their total energy requirements, they would spend about USD 500-600 billion on green hydrogen and other renewable energies during 2030-2040. Support from developed countries in this matter is also a must.<br>1.4.3 The survey also supports that a larger public-private participation is required in all the emerging nations, to contribute to enhanced production of electrolyzers and for funding of a larger infrastructure to enable green hydrogen production , storage and transportation</p> Barunava Banerjee Copyright (c) 2022 Barunava Banerjee Thu, 24 Nov 2022 00:00:00 -0800 A STUDY ON THE IMPETUSES AND CONTESTS IN THE ESPOUSAL OF CRYPTOCURRENCY AS A MEDIUM OF EXCHANGE IN INDIA <p>The deciding factor in the emergence of cryptocurrency as a global currency depends on the level of acceptance it gains in society. While cryptocurrency is gaining significant acceptance in developed economies like the US, the adoption rate in emerging economies like India has not been studied. Cryptocurrency must be adopted in countries like India to become an actual global currency. Hence, the study aims to determine the factors affecting the adoption of cryptocurrency as a medium of exchange in India.<br>Design /Methodology<br>The study is based on primary data collected from a targeted sample of 750 respondents. A theoretical model based on UTAUT and TTAT was developed. A purposive sampling technique was adopted for the study, and the required data were collected using a well-structured and pre-tested questionnaire. PLS-SEM analysis has been used to assess the theoretical model of the study.<br>Findings<br>The study established that perceived threat, attitude, and social influence are the significant factors affecting the adoption of cryptocurrency in India. Effort expectancy and performance expectancy have a considerable impact on the intention to use via attitude. In contrast, perceived severity and perceived susceptibility significantly affect the intention to use via<br>vi<br>perceived threat. Financial literacy and facilitating conditions don’t seem to impact the intention to use cryptocurrency as a medium of exchange in India.<br>Research Limitations<br>The study is limited to respondents in the major cities of India, and only people who are cryptocurrency investors were purposively selected for the study. Thus, future studies could examine the perception of people who are not cryptocurrency investors. Furthermore, future studies can also investigate other factors that affect the intention to use cryptocurrency, such as social media influence.<br>Originality<br>This might be the first study that combined UTAUT and TTAT models to assess the factors affecting the adoption of cryptocurrency. Further, this study attempted to capture the perception of Indian cryptocurrency investors, and thus, the results will be helpful for policy and decision-makers while adopting regulatory measures.</p> K.R. Ramprakash Copyright (c) 2022 K.R. Ramprakash Mon, 14 Nov 2022 00:00:00 -0800 CHINESE TOURISTS’ EXPENDITURES IN THE POST COVID-19 ERA WHAT BRINGS THEM TO A DESTINATION <p>The purpose of this research is to identify the current interests and variables that the<br>Chinese Market is considering for traveling, during and after the challenges of Covid-19.<br>The study aims to analyze the results from the methods of Pearsons Correlation<br>Coefficient, Cramers V based in Chi-square test, and individual answers from all the<br>respondents, by categories from leisure to business travelers. The results show the level<br>of importance that this niche conveys to the impact of some variables, ranking highest to<br>Security in the destination, where there is no criminality. Second, the Health concerns<br>coverage, where the destinations are able to secure the health and hygiene capacity to<br>provide a safety holidays or business trip. Third, good relationship between China and the<br>potential visited destination. There is also a correlation, no causation, with other<br>variables such as Income, Education, Accessibility, among others, as these are<br>considerations for traveling, in different percentages for business and leisure.</p> Antonio Benitez Garcia Copyright (c) 2022 Antonio Benitez Garcia Mon, 14 Nov 2022 00:00:00 -0800 GOVERNANCE, WORK SCOPE AND BUDGET FOR SECURITY AND SAFETY WITHIN THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT OF THE SUMMER OLYMPIC GAMES FROM SYDNEY 2000 TO TOKYO 2021: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES <p>The Olympic Games require one of the most complex mass event-related security operations in the world. Security and safety became one of the most important (and the most expensive) parts within the project management of the Olympics. Using both theoretical and empirical knowledge, this research on governance, work scope and budget for security and safety within the project management of the summer Olympic Games from Sydney 2000 to Tokyo 2021 (six case studies) provides a comparative analysis and future perspectives in the domain of Olympics-related security and safety. Alongside risk evolution, each of the following Olympic Games are more complex, which indicates the general failure of society to gradually make life safer. This confirms the basic determinants of security studies - constantly expanding and deepening. Counter-terrorism is significantly more expensive than terrorism itself. Although it is suppressed by large investments in<br>vi<br>security, terrorism remains the greatest threat to the Olympics due to the scale of direct (human fatalities and property damage) and indirect effects (public fear and anxiety). Cyber-attacks, in which damage can be done without the physical presence of the perpetrator, are becoming an extremely threat to the Olympics. The evolution of risk has conditioned the CERT to be an indispensable part of the security preparation of the Olympics. Due to the drastic increase in the security capacity of the Olympics, no realized major security incidents were recorded from 2000 to 2021. In terms of governance, evolution from domicile to international multi-agency cooperation and evolution of the number of stakeholders involved suggest that each subsequent Olympic Games are more complex. Although the security budget occupies a significant share of the total organizational budget of the Games (post-9/11 security budget is no longer measured in millions but in billions USD), those investments can be justified by long-term legacy in terms of urban development, personnel, technology, governmental policies, etc. Further research should address the methods to optimize security measures against restrictions of human rights and liberties. In addition to deepening theoretical and empirical studies of counterterrorism, further research on prevention of inter-agency rivalry as well as prevention of cyber-attacks at the Olympic Games is recommended.</p> Luka Leško Copyright (c) 2022 Luka Leško Mon, 14 Nov 2022 00:00:00 -0800 INTRAPRENEURSHIP AT A STATE-OWNED ENTERPRISE IN CHINA (An explorative and qualitative study in a state-owned enterprise in China) <p>The purpose of the dissertation is to get a better insight into the needs of an education program related to intrapreneurship at a State-Owned Enterprise in China and based on these needs to come up with a customized education program for a specific State-Owned Enterprise in China and ultimately to improve intrapreneurial activities at conservative companies in China. Although there are many issues related to intrapreneurship, the following were selected for the literature review: the role of foreign direct investment in SOEs, the role of mixed ownership at SOEs, the role of incentive systems at SOEs, the effect of bureaucracy at SOEs and personality characteristics and their impact on intrapreneurial activities at SOEs. A conceptual framework was made to visualise the structure and flow of this dissertation. Besides the extensive literature review about the role of foreign investment, the role of mixed ownership, the role of incentive systems at SOEs, the effects of bureaucracy at SOEs and personality characteristics and their impact on intrapreneurial activities at SOEs, a substantial part of the literature review is about intrapreneurship in general, about communication in China and about how to conduct research at a SOE. The company where both the survey and the interviews were conducted was CRRC, a major State-Owned Enterprise in China. The survey was answered by 32 people working at CRRC and the interviews were done with 8 people working at CRRC. Both the survey and the interviews gave a clear understanding for the need of an intrapreneurial mindset at the company and more specifically helped setting up an educational program to improve intrapreneurial activities at the State-Owned Enterprise.<br>A major constraint of this research is that the findings are limited to CRRC and to optimize the educational program for a wider use more research needs to be conducted at other State-Owned Enterprises in China as well. Another constraint is that the researcher had to select inputs to use for his research. This selection was based on relevance to the research and were specifically, current level of intrapreneurship at state-owned enterprise, ownership issues at SOE, bureaucracy at SOE, incentives and intrapreneurship at SOE ad personality characteristics and their impact on intrapreneurship at SOE. Other inputs like management and leadership styles, the role of government and other institutions, tax incentives, financial strength of company and cultural dimensions could have been considered as well and could be subject to future research. This dissertation can be used by any conservative company in China to engage employees and improve intrapreneurship in general and can form a basis for a more specific and customized program later.</p> Anselm A.M. Vermeulen Copyright (c) 2022 Anselm A.M. Vermeulen Mon, 14 Nov 2022 00:00:00 -0800 EXAMINING OPERATING PERFORMANCE IN AN INSULAR BANK OLIGOPOLY THE CASE OF PUERTO RICO <p>This study examines the operating efficiency of the Puerto Rican banking sector as it<br>coalesced into an oligopoly. Notably, contravening institutional precepts, consolidation<br>activity was sanctioned by a regulator overtly concerned with stemming rapidly<br>deteriorating macroeconomic conditions. No other research is known to have<br>investigated the locality’s unique circumstances nor a dramatically contracting<br>marketplace in the United States. Statutory guidelines designed to preclude excessive<br>market concentration ensure the sui generis nature of the setting. The main research<br>questions considered are whether the emergence of an oligopoly affected the system’s<br>operating performance, were institutions impacted in a similar manner, and was the<br>regulatory objective of concocting a more resilient banking sector achieved. To address<br>these inquiries, the dissertation is guided by the conceptual framework advanced by<br>real resource theory, as manifested by both the intermediation and production<br>approaches. Performance of the banking system is measured by applying quantitative<br>methods designed to gauge the individual participants’ ability to convert or transform<br>inputs into outputs. The non-parametric approach advanced by Data Envelopment<br>Analysis estimates the operating efficiencies for each commercial bank. The Malmquist<br>Total Factor Productivity Index then segregates the contributors to performance<br>between technological innovation and managerial effectiveness. Finally, the parametric<br>method associated with the Tobit model assesses the relative contribution to<br>productivity of specific endogenous and exogenous parameters. Congruous with recent<br>research devoted to oligopolistic market structures, the results reveal an improvement in<br>systemic performance although with asymmetric reverberations. Consequently, for<br>policymakers, the study concludes that under certain conditions fomenting a highly<br>concentrated marketplace is advisable. However, heightened monitoring would be<br>warranted to prevent abusive anti-competitive practices. For practitioners, the findings<br>highlight the importance of technology implementation in driving performance and<br>advocate particular close scrutiny of expenses pertaining to interest cost and premises<br>on account of their assessed statistically significant contribution to profitability.</p> Jorge C. Herrera Copyright (c) 2022 Jorge C. Herrera Mon, 14 Nov 2022 00:00:00 -0800 IMPACT OF AI IN CUSTOMER SERVICES RETENTION: A BEHAVIORAL PERSPECTIVE OF INDIAN MOBILE MARKET <p>In this research, I have explored customer retention as one of the most significant advancements in membership-based business models. To obtain a competitive advantage, businesses use electronic commerce channels to engage with mobile users. For example, competition is severe in the market, where clients can explore a large selection of vendors, even within the same product category. After a few negative experiences, a customer may discontinue purchasing services or products from a specific company. According to this study, customers' perceptions of their interactions with firm staff may be influenced by negative emotions. Some clients may be dissatisfied, while others may sympathise with the personnel at issue. This reaction is represented in their emotional abilities, which the scientific world refers to as emotional intelligence. As a result, the title of this study paper includes several aspects that influence consumer behaviour and are influenced by Artificial Intelligence (AI).<br>A typical AI system operates by consuming huge volumes of labelled training data, analysing it for correlations and patterns, and then forecasting future states. Because AI programming focuses on obtaining data and generating rules to turn it into meaningful information, its learning processes are overly powerful. Artificial intelligence automates the data review process, providing previously unreachable insights that assist clients in better understanding their needs.<br>Consumer behaviour in the mobile industry, particularly consumer behaviour, has become a prominent marketing research topic. Every consumer has distinct life experiences that influence their shopping decisions. Age, employment, lifestyle, personality, and self-concept are social and personal elements that can affect a buyer's final selection. The Indian mobile market is still in its early stages, and several smartphone manufacturers see it as a potential market. "Some major international companies are Samsung, Apple, Sony, Nokia, Motorola, LG, and so on. However, the market share of international brands is decreasing as local brands such as Micromax and Karbonn launch smartphones with Android operating systems and large screens at much lower prices than international brands."<br>The rapid developments in practically every business type underline the importance of relationships and the need to build networks of ties. Mobile commerce has become indispensable in all parts of life, including education, health, business, and<br>entertainment. Mobile phones are "telephones that are portable and not coupled to a base unit that operates on specialised mobile phone networks and generates income from all speech and data transfers emanating from such mobile phones."<br>Based on tests performed on data collected, several outcomes were discovered. In this research, the participants were chosen using the technique described, and their data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The Chi-Square test was used to investigate the relationship between the individual domain of AI and the age of the consumer who considers it important, as well as the relationship between companies and their usage of optimal service techniques.<br>According to the study's findings, a customer-journey analytics solution records each customer's moves across its ecosystem in the telecom business. The service creates maps of each journey and records visitor interactions. Comcast quickly resolves customer experience issues using AI to collect data and detect where trips fail, such as with its mobile app. Businesses are integrating different AI, Martech, and back-office technologies with standard application programming interfaces to generate and use customised data more effectively. Users can interact with businesses in innovative ways thanks to new digital media. Users may give these individualised client experiences while alleviating the pressure on your support staff by utilising AI and cognitive search. For instance, the performance of content in your self-service community determines the content ranking agents see in the CRM. Within your customer community, the content that agents utilise to resolve situations is pushed to the top of search results. This closes the loop between self-service and assistance, allowing you to provide seamless experiences for your customers. AI-powered solutions may aid organisations in encouraging customers to take action at each stage of the user life cycle.</p> Kishore Kunal Copyright (c) 2022 Kishore Kunal Mon, 14 Nov 2022 00:00:00 -0800